Jumat, 30 November 2012
Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia
a. Kingdom of Samudra Pasai
The kingdom was founded by Sultan Malik al-Shaleh as well as the first king in the 13th century. Kingdom of Pasai Ocean located north Perlak in the Lhok Semawe now (east coast of Aceh).
As a royal, king reigned over the ocean turns Pasai. The kings who ruled Pasai Ocean is as follows.
(1) Sultan Malik al-Shaleh attempt laid the foundations of Islamic rule and sought to develop his kingdom among others through trade and strengthen the army. Pasai Ocean developed into a powerful maritime state in the Malacca Straits.
(2) Muhammad Sultan (Sultan Malik al Tahir I) who ruled from 1297-1326. During his reign the kingdom Perlak then united with the Kingdom of Samudra Pasai.
(3) Sultan Malik al Tahir II (1326-1348 AD). Raja Ahmad, whose real name is so firmly holds the teachings of Islam and Muslims to actively broadcast the surrounding countries. As a result, developing Pasai Ocean as a center spread of Islam. During his reign, Pasai Ocean has a strong fleet so that the traders feel safe transit and trade around Pasai Ocean. However, after emerging kingdom of Malacca, Pasai Ocean began to fade. Pasai Ocean in 1522 was occupied by the Portuguese. The existence of Pasai Ocean as a maritime empire was replaced by the Kingdom of Aceh who came later.
Another note about this kingdom can be known from the writings of Ibn Battuta, a traveler from Morocco. According to Battuta, in 1345, the Ocean Pasai a prosperous trade empire. Many traders from Java, China, and India who come there. This is due to the strategic location of Pasai Ocean at the Strait of Malacca. Currency gold is disebur deureuham (dirhams).
In the field of religion, Pasai Ocean became the center of Islamic study. The kingdom is spread Islam until the Minangkabau, Jambi, Malacca, Java, and even to Thailand. From the Kingdom of Samudra Pasai cadres Islam is prepared to develop Islam into various areas. One is Fatahillah. He was the son Pasai who later became commander in Demak later became ruler of Banten.
b. Kingdom of Aceh
Subsequent Islamic empire was the kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra. Kingdom founded by Sultan Ibrahim Ali who holds Mughayat Shah (1514-1528), became important because withdrawal Pasai Ocean Empire and the Kingdom of the development of Malacca.
The traders then more often come to Aceh.
Aceh Kingdom central government in Kutaraja (Banda Aceh now). The style of governance in Aceh consists of two systems: the civil government under the nobility, called teuku groups, and governments on the basis of religion under the clergy, called Tengku or teungku group.
As an empire, Aceh experienced a period of back and forth. Aceh boomed during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636). During his reign, Aceh was the golden age. Aceh can even master Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak in the Malay Peninsula and Indragiri, Bintan and Nias. In addition, Iskandar Muda also preparing legislation called the Indigenous governance Mahkota Alam.
After Sultan Iskandar Muda, no longer able to control the Acehnese sultan. Aceh suffered a setback under the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Thani (1636-1641). He was succeeded by his queen, Princess Consort Sri Alam (1641-1675). History records Aceh increasingly weakened by infighting between groups teuku and teungku, and between Shia and Sunna group sal flow of pilgrims. Finally, the Dutch managed to control Aceh in 1904.
In the social field, its strategic location in the central point of international trade route in the Strait of Malacca makes Aceh increasingly crowded Muslim merchants.
Tempers assimilation in both social and economic. In social life, there is a fusion between tradition and Islam. At about the 16th century and 17 are four experts Sufism in Aceh, namely Hamzah Fansuri, Shamsuddin as-Sumtrani, Nur ad-Din ar-Raniri, and Abdurrauf of Singkil.
Fourth was very influential scholars not only in Aceh but also in Java.
In economic life, Aceh is growing rapidly in its heyday. With control of the area east and west coast of Sumatra, Aceh became a kingdom rich in natural resources, such as rice, gold, silver and tin, and spices.
c. Kingdom of Demak and Pajang
Demak was the first Islamic kingdom in Java. Kingdom that was founded by Prince Fracture at first is a region with a name that Bintoro Glagah or under the authority of Majapahit. Majapahit suffered a setback at the end of the 15th century. This slowdown provides an opportunity for Demak to develop into a major city and commercial center. With the help of the clergy Walisongo, Demak developed into the center of the spread of Islam in Java and the eastern archipelago.
For the kingdom, Demak ruled by successive kings. Demak was founded by Prince Fracture (1500-1518) who holds Alam Sultan Akhbar al Fatah. Broken is actually a Prince Raden Jimbun, son of the king of Majapahit. During his reign, Demak growing rapidly. Demak territory covers an area of their own, Semarang, Tegal, Jepara and its surroundings, and quite influential in Palembang and Jambi in Sumatra, as well as some areas of Borneo. Because it has such important ports of Jepara, Tuban, Sedayu, Gresik, Raden Patah strengthen his fleet so Demak developed into a powerful maritime nation. With that power, Demak tried to attack Portuguese Malacca at that master. Demak help Malacca because the interests of Demak participated disturbed by the presence of the Portuguese in Malacca. However, the attack failed.
Raden Patah later replaced by the Duke of Unus (1518-1521). Although he did not rule long, but its name is quite well known as a warlord who dare.
He tried to stem the influence of the Portuguese do not extend to Java. Because die young, Duke Unus later succeeded by his brother, Sultan Trenggono (1521-1546). Under his reign, Demak experienced its heyday. Trenggono managed to bring Demak expanding territory. In 1522, troops under the command of Demak Fatahillah attack Banten, Sunda Kelapa, and Cirebon. New in 1527, Sunda Kelapa been won. In an attack on Pasuruan in 1546, Sultan Trenggono fall.
After the death of Sultan Trenggono, Demak decline. Occurs power struggle between Prince Sekar Sedolepen, brother Sultan Trenggono should be king and Sunan Prawoto, the eldest son of Sultan Trenggono. Sunan Prawoto later defeated by Arya Penangsang, Sekar Sedolepen Pengeran child.
However, Arya Penangsang was then killed by Joko Tingkir, the son of Sultan Trenggono Duke on Display. Joko Tingkir (1549-1587) who later styled Sultan Hadiwijaya move to the center of the kingdom of Demak Display.
Kingdom became known as the Kingdom of Pajang.
Sultan Hadiwijaya then repay his aides who had been instrumental in the battle against Aryan Penangsang. They are Ki Ageng archery accept gifts of land in the area Mataram (Alas Mentaok), Ki Penjawi rewarded with territory in the Pati, and both at once appointed as regent in their respective regions. Regent of Surabaya which many meritorious subdue the regions in East Java was appointed viceroy with Sedayu territory, Gresik, Surabaya, and Panarukan.
When Sultan Hadiwijaya died, he was succeeded by his son Sultan Benowo. During his reign, Arya Pangiri, son of Sultan Prawoto rebellion. However, the rebellion was extinguished with the help of Prince Benowo Sutawijaya, adopted son Sultan Hadiwijaya. Display throne was handed over to the Prince Benowo Sutawijaya. Sutawijaya then move to the center of the kingdom of Mataram Display.
In the religious field, Raden Patah and assisted the trustees, Demak appear as a center spread of Islam. Raden Patah then built a magnificent mosque, the Mosque of Demak.
In the field of economy, Demak is a transit port (interface) is essential. As a trading center of Demak has important ports, such as Jepara, Tuban, Sedayu, Gresik. Ports are a focal area of spice and buyers. Demak also has a large income from the farm is big enough. As a result, the economy Demak degan growing rapidly.
d. Kingdom of Mataram and legacy
Sutawijaya who got an abundance of Royal Pajang of Sultan Benowo then move the seat of government to the authority of his father, Ki Ageng Pemanahan, in Mataram. Sutawijaya later became king of Mataram with the title Panembahan alaga Sayidin Panatagama Senopati Ing.
Senopati Panembahan Government (1586-1601) did not go smoothly as marked by rebellion. Kingdom centered in Kotagede (southeast of the city of Yogyakarta today) is always a war to subdue the regents who want to escape from the power of Mataram, as Regent of Ponorogo, Madiun, Kediri, Pasuruan even Demak. However, all areas that can be overcome. The last area is mastered with the help of Sunan Giri Surabaya.
After Senopati died, his son Mas jolang (1601-1613) ascended the throne and the title of Sultan Anyakrawati. He had mastered Kertosono, Kediri, and Mojoagung. He died in battle in the area that became known as Krapyak Prince Sedo Krapyak.
Mas jolang later replaced by Mas Stimulation (1613-1645). Raja Sultan Agung of Mataram who holds Alogo Ngabdurracham Senopati ing is then better known as Sultan Agung. During his reign, reached its golden Mataram. The seat of government moved to Plered. His rule covering Central Java, East Java, and part of West Java. Sultan Agung aspire to unite Java. Feeling as successor kingdom of Demak, Sultan Agung Banten is considered part of the Kingdom of Mataram. However, Banten not want to submit to Mataram. Sultan Agung Banten then intend to win.
However, the intention is hampered due to VOC control of Sunda Kelapa. VOC also did not like Mataram. As a result, Sultan Agung had to deal first with the VOC. Sultan Agung twice tried to attack VOC: in 1628 and 1629.
The attack did not succeed, but it could stem the influence of VOC in Java.
Sultan Agung of Mataram kingdom divided government system as follows.
(1) Kutanegara, the central area of the palace. Implementation of government held by the duke Lebet (Patih In) assisted Wedana Lebet (Wedana In).
(2) the State Court, the area around Kutanegara. Implementation of the government held Patih Jawi (Patih rating) assisted Wedana Jawi (Wedana rating).
(3) Abroad, the area outside of the State Court. Implementation of government held by the Regents.
(4) Coastal, coastal areas. Implementation of government held by the Regents or the harbormaster.
Sultan Agung died in 1645 and was replaced by Amangkurat I (1645-1677). Amangkurat I establish a relationship with the Netherlands. During his reign. Mataram attacked by Trunojaya of Madura, but it can be thwarted because assisted Netherlands.
Amangkurat I then replaced by Amangkurat II (1677-1703). During his reign, the kingdom of Mataram narrowed area because it was taken by the Dutch.
After Amangkurat II, the kings who ruled Mataram no longer have complete control because of the Dutch influence is very strong. Even in 1755, Mataram was split into two due Giyanti Agreement:
Ngayogyakarta (Sultanate of Yogyakarta), based in Yogyakarta with the title of king Mangkubumi lane I and Kesuhunan Surakarta Surakarta centered on the king's Majesty Pakubuwono III. Thus, ending the kingdom of Mataram.
Social and economic life Mataram is quite advanced. As the kingdom, Mataram forward almost in all fields, agriculture, religion, culture. In the days of the Majapahit Kingdom, came Javanese culture, blending native Javanese culture, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam, for example Grebeg ceremony, Sekaten. The famous work of literature is the work of Sultan Agung Ivory Literature. In 1633, Sultan Agung change calculations are based on the calculation of the Hindu year by year the sun by the moon of Islam.
e. Kingdom of Banten
Kingdom located in western Java was originally a part of the kingdom of Demak. Banten was captured by forces under the command of Fatahillah Demak. Fatahillah is the son of the Sharif Hidayatullah. Sharif Hidayatullah was one trustee who is empowered by Demak kingdom to rule in Cirebon. Sharif Hidayatullah had 2 sons of men, prince and Prince Sabakingkin Pasarean. Prince Pasareaan power in Cirebon. In 1522, Prince Saba Kingkin later better known by the name of Hasanuddin anointed King Banten.
Once the kingdom of Demak setback, Banten then get away from Demak. Stand Banten kingdom with its king Sultan Hasanudin (1522-1570). During his reign, the influence of Banten to Lampung. That is, Bantenlah who controlled the trade route in the Sunda Strait. The merchants from China, Persia, Gujarat, who came to Turkey many ports in Banten. Banten kingdom developed into a center of trade due to its highly strategic addition, Banten is also supported by several factors including the fall of Malacca to the hands of the Portuguese (1511) so that the Muslim traders switched lanes voyage through Sunda Strait. Other factors, Banten is the producer of pepper and rice, commodities sold on the world market.
Sultan Hasanudin then replaced his son, Prince Joseph (1570-1580).
During his reign, Banten won Pajajaran and Pakuan.
Prince Joseph was replaced by Maulana Muhammad. The king who holds the Queen Kanjeng Banten just nine years old when it was made king. Therefore, in running the government, aided by Maulana Muhammad Mangkubumi. In 1595, he led an expedition to attack Palembang. In that battle, Maulana Muhammad died.
Maulana Muhammad was succeeded by his son Abu'lmufakhir five-month-old. In running a government, aided by Jayanegara Abu'lmufakhir. Abu'lmufakhir Abu'ma'ali Ahmad was replaced by Rahmatullah. Abu'ma'ali was replaced by Rahmatullah Ahmad Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (1651-1692).
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa make Banten as a kingdom thrive. To help, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa in 1671 raised purtanya, Sultan Abdulkahar, As with the king maid. However, the title of sultan Sultan Haji associated with the Netherlands. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa who did not like it tried to take over control of the government, but to no avail because Sultan Haji supported the Netherlands. Finally, civil war broke out. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa caught and imprisoned. Thus, Banten gradually deteriorated since displaced by the Batavia under Dutch rule.
f. Kingdom of Cirebon
Kingdom that lies on the border between West Java and Central Java was founded by a member of Walisongo, Sunan Gunung Jati with a degree Sharif Hidayatullah.
Sharif Hidayatullah bring progress to Cirebon. When Demak send troops under Fatahilah (Faletehan) to attack the Portuguese in Sunda Kelapa, Sharif Hidayatullah provide full assistance. Even in 1524, Fatahillah taken by Sharif Hidayatullah law. After Fatahillah managed to expel the Portuguese from Sunda Kelapa, Sharif Hidayatullah asked Fatahillah to become regent in Jayakarta.
Sharif Hidayatullah was succeeded by his son Prince Pasarean. This is the king of the kings down next Cirebon.
In 1679, Cirebon had divided into two, namely Kasepuhan and Kanoman.
With political impera de vide at Dutch launched at that time was influential in Cirebon, Sultanate Kanoman divided into Kanoman Sultanate and Kacirebonan. Thus, Cirebon power is divided into three, namely Kasepuhan, Kanoman, and Kacirebonan. Cirebon successfully controlled VOC at the end of the 17th century.
g. Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo
Kingdom which is located in South Sulawesi is actually composed of two jobs:
Gowa and Tallo. Both are then united kingdom. King of Gowa, Daeng Manrabia, became king title Sultan Alauddin and King Tallo, Karaeng Mantoaya, became prime minister Abdullah Sultan title. Since the central government located in Makassar, the Kingdom of Gowa and Tallo often referred to as the Kingdom of Makassar.
Because of its strategic position between the western and the eastern archipelago, the Kingdom of Gowa and Tallo became the main port for entering Indonesia rich Eastern spices. Kingdom of Makassar had a tough sailors mainly from the Bugis area. These are the reinforcing sea defense Makassar.
The famous king of this kingdom is Sultan Hasanuddin (1653-1669).
Hasanuddin Makassar successfully expanded its territory either to the top to Sumbawa and Flores in the southern part.
Because it is a major port to enter Eastern Indonesia, Hasanuddin aspire to make Makassar as the center of trade in eastern Indonesia. It is a threat to the Netherlands so often fighting and robbery of a Dutch fleet. Dutch then attack with the help of Aru Palaka Makassar, king Bone. Netherlands managed to force Hasanuddin, The Roosters East Bongaya Treaty was agreed in 1667. The contents of the agreement are: the Dutch trade monopoly in Makassar, Dutch should set up a fort in Makassar, Makassar had to let go of its colonies, and the Aru Palaka be recognized as King Bone.
Sultan Hasanuddin later replaced by Mapasomba. However, the ruling did not Mapasomba long since mastered Dutch Makassar, South Sulawesi and even whole.
Tata life growing in Makassar influenced by Islamic law.
Life economy based on maritime economy: trade and shipping. South Sulawesi is itself a fertile agricultural region. Taklukkannya areas in the southeast as Selayar and Buton and south as Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores also an area rich in natural resources. All that makes Makassar able to meet all their needs even able to export.
Because it has a tough sailors and is located at the entrance of the trade routes of Eastern Indonesia, drafted Ade'Allapialing Bicarana Pabbalri'e, a trade and commerce law system and a papyrus manuscript written by Amanna Gappa.
h. Kingdom of Ternate and Tidore
Ternate is an Islamic empire in the east stands in the 13th century by the king Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Zainal Abidin was a pupil of Sunan Giri in the Kingdom of Demak. Tidore kingdom standing on the other islands by Sultan Mansur as king.
Kingdom located in Eastern Indonesia became the target of the traders because Maluku is rich spices. Kingdom of Ternate rapidly growing thanks to the spices, especially cloves.
Ternate and Tidore peaceful coexistence. However, the peace did not last forever. After the Portuguese and Spanish came to the Moluccas, the two kingdoms successfully played off. As a result, between the two kingdoms there is competition. Portuguese who entered the Moluccas in 1512 made Ternate as allies by building a fort Sao Paulo. Spain entered the Moluccas in 1521 made Tidore as allies.
With the timing of these two European nations in Tidore and Ternate, there has been fighting constantly. It happened because both peoples both want to monopolize the results of the two kingdoms of the earth. On the other hand, it turns out it's not just the Europeans to trade but also try to spread their religion. The spread of this religion are challenged by the King of Ternate, Sultan Khairun (1550-1570). When consulted by the Dutch in the castle Sao Paulo, Sultan Khairun killed by the Portuguese.
Having realized that they played off, improved relations between the two kingdoms again. Sultan Khairun later replaced by Sultan Baabullah (1570-1583). During his reign, the Portuguese were driven from Ternate. That success is inseparable from the support of Sultan Tidore. Sultan Khairun also successfully expanded its territory to the Philippines Ternate.
Meanwhile, the kingdom of Tidore progress during the reign of Sultan Nuku. Sultan Nuku succeeded in expanding the influence of Tidore to Halmahera, Ceram, even Kai in the south and Misol in Irian.
With the entry of Spain and Portugal to the Moluccas, religious and social life in Maluku so diverse: there are Catholicism, Protestantism, and Islam. Islamic influence is felt in Ternate and Tidore. Protestant influence is felt in Maluku and central parts of the Catholic influence is felt around the southern Maluku.
Maluku is the spice producing areas are very popular even to Europe. That commodity that attracts people of Europe and Asia came to the archipelago. The merchants brought their goods and exchange it with spices. The process was initially profitable trading community. However, with the enactment of the political monopoly of the trade, a decline in many areas, including social welfare.